Category Archives: Grammar

「くださる」対「いただく」:どちらがもっと丁寧? (Kudasaru vs Itadaku: which is more polite?)

皆さん、

こんにちは。週末はどうでしたか。 (Good day everyone, how was your weekend?)

先週、会話クラスで授受動詞(Verbs of receiving and giving)を教えました。 ある生徒は私にこう言ってくれました。「先生、I am confused. What’s the difference between くださる and いただく? Aren’t they both 敬語?Which is more polite?」

今日、詳しくその質問に答えます。 (Today, i will answer the question in more detail)

Firstly, 「くださる」 is a honorific verb, whereas 「いただく」 is a humble verb.

When you use 「くださる」, you are making the level of the person that you are speaking to (聞き手) to a higher level status.

When you use 「いただく」, you are lowering your own level to a lower status.

Take a look at the below sentences

① 「先生、いろいろ教えてくださって、ありがとうございます」
② 「先生、いろいろ教えていただいて、ありがとうございます」

Which is more appropriate to use in the above case?

① would fit the bill more. The reason is because, the teacher in this case, should be more respected, if you do not use 「くださる」,  it seems like you are not showing enough politeness to the teacher. When ① is used, the focus is also more on the teacher, rather than you.

In ②、 the focus is more on you, the speaker (話し手), you humble yourself down to a lower level. But wait? What happens to the sensei? His/her level doesn’t change.

Let’s take a look at the below youtube video. Notice the display and what the lady said in the announcement.

Why is 「いただきまして」 not used in this case, it’s the same as the above reason.

In another case,

「ご来店くださいまして」 and 「ご来店いただきまして」,  in terms of politeness level, the latter is deemed to be more polite because 3 forms of 敬語 (尊敬語、謙譲語 and 丁寧語) has been used. In the former, only 2 forms of 敬語 (尊敬語 and 丁寧語) has been used.

Free Image Hosting at www.ImageShack.us

In conclusion, 「くださる」 should be used when you want to raise the level of the person that you are speaking to (聞き手). If the focus is more on yourself, 「いただく」 should be used.

Below are some further readings on this topic.

http://detail.chiebukuro.yahoo.co.jp/qa/question_detail/q1310990773

http://www3.kcn.ne.jp/~jarry/keig/c01c26.html

http://okwave.jp/qa/q4229929.html

可能形:「肉が食べられる」と「肉を食べられる」 の違い (Potential form: The difference between 「肉が食べられる」と「肉を食べられる」)

皆さん、こんにちは。
Good day everyone.

今日は文法の説明をやりたいと思います。
Today, i would like to do some grammar explanation.

先日、ある生徒はFBで「肉を食べられる」を載せました。 僕はそのコメントをみたら、「 「肉が食べられる」のほうが自然です」 と書きました。
Some days back, one of my students wrote 「肉を食べられる」 on his Facebook. When i saw this comment, i wrote that 「肉がたべられる」 is more natural.

で、日本人の友達に確認してから、両方が使えるそうです。なぜでしょうか。
Then i did a check with my Japanese friends and found out that both can be used. Why is that so?

今日、その謎を解いていきます。
Today, i will solve that mystery.

以下の場面に、「が」より「を」が使われやすいです。
In the below situations, 「を」 is much easier to use that 「が」.

1)対象が誰か混乱するとき (When you are confused who’s the target)

(He cannot restrain his wife)

彼は妻引き止められない。 ????

->彼は妻を引き止められない。

 

2)他動性の動詞で、それ自体が長い音節を持つ動詞 (The transitive verb itself holds a long syllabus)

You cannot tie this dog to that shelf.

あの棚にこの犬結びつけられない。 ????

->あの棚にこの犬を結び付けられない。

 

3)従属節(名詞修飾節、副詞節)の中 (In a subordinate clause)

好きな字を書き込める装置を開発した。

節約をできる階層は限られている。

 

 

また、「食べる」、「飲む」「書く」など日常生活の動詞は「を」より「が」の使用が好まれるようです。
Also, in everyday life, 「が」 seems to be more used often.

Saying this, on Google, 「を食べられる」 and 「が食べられる」 yields the following results

57300,000 resultsー>「を食べられる」
58600,000 results ->「が食べられる」

Thus, to be on the safe side, i think it’s better to use 「が食べられる」 other than the 3 situations above.
__________________________________________________________________________
Source: 初級日本語文法と教え方のポイント
ISBN: 9784883193363
I am helping to collate a mass order for this book directly from Japan. Contact me for details.

Free session on Particles (助詞)

皆さん、

こんばんは。 There will be a free session on particles next Sunday (3rd June 2012) 9-11am.
For those who wish to sign up for this free session, kindly use the template below to email me.

Subject of email: Free session on Particles Registration
Name:
Contact Number:
Level of study: Beginner/Intermediate/Advanced
JLPT Level: N1/N2/N3/N4/N5
Email address:
Why you do not understand about particles:
Number of seats: 6

Location of session: Wilkie Edge (nearest MRT: Dhoby Ghaut/Little India)

Deadline for registration: 27th May 2012 Sunday 12pm

Kindly be informed that there will be fees incurred for the photocopying: about $0.30-$0.50 which you would have to bear. =)

「ように」 対 「ために」の使い分け (The difference between 「ように」 and 「ために」 )

皆さん、

Second post for the day. I promised my student, V-san, that i will write an article on the difference between 「ように」 and 「ために」, so here it goes.

I did a reference from this book: 初級日本語文法と教え方のポイント by: 石川保子先生. Her books are really very good. Please support her books.

Let’s take a look at 「ために」 first.

A   ために、 B
Chinese translation of 「ために」: 因此,因而,所以
=======================================================================================================
原因・理由を表す (Describing Cause/Reason)
For A: Put in a sentence that describes cause or reason. It can also be a sentence that describes a purpose. A sentence that should have with a cause/reason and result.

Let’s take a look at an example.

Sentence 1:
急用ができたために、午後の会議には出られません。
Because of some urgent business, i cannot attend the afternoon meeting.
Let’s take a look at another sentence.

Sentence 2:
急用ができたために、午後の会議は休ませてください
Because of some urgent business, please allow me to rest from the afternoon meeting.

Sentence 2 is not correct. For B, you cannot have sentences that describe volition.
=========================================================================================================
目的を表す (Describe Purpose/Aim)

When you are using this grammar for describing purpose and aim, it is ok to have sentences that describe volition for B

Example Sentences:

家族を守るためにがんばりました。
For the sake of protecting my family, i worked hard
家族を守るためにがんばってください。
For the sake of protecting your family, please work hard

家族を守るためにがんばれ!
For the sake of protecting your family, Work hard!
=========================================================================================================
Now, for 「ように」

A ように B
Chinese translation for 「ように」: 为了

For A: Put in a sentence that describes a purpose.
=========================================================================================================
Example Sentences:
日本語の会話が理解できるように、毎日テープを聞いている。
In order to be able to understand Japanese conversation, every day i listen to the tape.

子供が元気に育つように、親は頑張っている。
In order to raise the children up, the parents are working hard

風邪をひどくならないように、薬を飲んで早めに寝よう。
In order for the cold not to get worse, do take your medicine and go to bed early.
=========================================================================================================
There are lots of examples that before 「ように」, verbs that are non volitional or verbs with ない form are used.

You can take it as in order to achieve the result that is describe by B, A is done.

For 「ために」, you already know in your consciousness (意識) that you need to achieve something , so you express the will to want to complete something.

Like in this sentence,
家族を守るためにがんばりました。
For the sake of protecting my family, i worked hard

as compared to 「ように」 whereby you express the aim and what you are doing to achieve the aim.

子供が元気に育つように、親は頑張っている。
In order to raise the children up, the parents are working hard
=========================================================================================================
Some other good examples out there:
http://forum.jisho.org/discussion/1208/in-order-to-%E7%82%BA%E3%81%AB%E3%80%80%E3%82%88%E3%81%86%E3%81%AB/p1
http://www.sowto.com/ks/yyxx/ryxx/200510/ks_1582.html

名詞修飾形パート2: 名詞修飾形に関する質問と答え

皆さん、

おはようございます。Diablo 3をしていますか。 =p

先日、名詞修飾形に関する質問と答えを発表させていただきます。
=================================================
While the poor but handsome Tao-san was eating a $1.50 Tao Sha Pia at Hanis which is beside the white colored National Library which is located at Middle Road of Bugis, Singapore, he met the pretty Licia-san who was eating a $1.50 Tao Sha Pia and currently studying Japanese at Chacha Language School .

貧乏ながらもハンサムなTaoさんはシンガポールのBugisのMiddle Roadにある白い図書館の側のHanisで1ドル50セントのTao Sha Piaを食べている間に、現在チャチャランゲージスクールで日本語を勉強していて、1ドル50セントのTao Sha Piaを食べていたきれいなLiciaさんに会いました。
=================================================
Of course, there are many kinds of answers for the above question. I receive about 5 replies for this question, all of them either had some grammar mistakes or mistakes on particle. Now let’s take a look at how to decipher this phrase. I will use different colors on the different parts of the question.

While the poor but handsome Tao-san was eating a $1.50 Tao Sha Pia at Hanis which is beside the white colored National Library which is located at Middle Road of Bugis, Singapore, he met the pretty Licia-san who was eating a $1.50 Tao Sha Pia and currently studying Japanese at Chacha Language School .

Now let’s do the nouns first

The poor but handsome Tao-san: 貧乏ながらもハンサムなTaoさん
「ながらも」 is a N2 grammar that means 「however」

$1.50 Tao Sha Pia: 1ドル50セントのTao Sha Pia
Hanis which is beside the white colored National Library which is located at Middle Road of Bugis, Singapore
: シンガポールのBugisのMiddle Roadにある白い図書館の側のHanis
Pretty Licia-san: きれいなLiciaさん
$1.50 Tao Sha Pia: 1ドル50セントのTao Sha Pia
Chacha Language School: チャチャランゲージスクール

Let’s do the verbs now.

While ~ was eating: 食べながら

Met: 会いました

Was eating: 食べていて

================================================
Not an easy question to do, but good try to all. =)
Learning 名詞修飾形 will come a long way, if you really know it well, it will really help you out in your JLPT exam.

Have a Great Day ahead.  =)

“Do you know me?” says 名詞修飾形(めいししゅうしょくけい/Noun modifying form)/Small contest

Inspired by one of my students (A-san) taking N2 to write an article on this.

A lot of students that i speak to, not just my new students that i took, but also students from other schools mentioned that that have problem understanding 名詞修飾形/noun-modifying form.

At N2 level, 名詞修飾形 is needed to understand the grammar (i won’t go into details how this can help you to identify what option to pick in the exam) , but also help you to form your sentence. Below is a short example of how 名詞修飾形 is formed.

Let’s try to use this to form 8 sentences to help you to understand this.

Sentence 1:
Wisma Atria is in Orchard Road:
Wisma Atria は Orchard Roadにあります。

Sentence 2:
Now when i want to describe “Wisma Atria that is in Orchard Road”, it will become
「Orchard RoadにあるWisma Atria」

Note that: 「Orchard RoadのWisma Atria」 is also correct, but the meaning will be translated to “Orchard Road’s Wisma Atria”

Notice what happens? You will change the 「あります」 in  Sentence 1’s 「Orchard Roadにあります」  to 「ある」
Remove the 「は」 away, and pop the whole part 「Orchard Roadにある」 to the front of Wisma Atria.

Sentence 3:
Orchard Road of Singapore
シンガポールのOrchard Road

Now try to translate this

Sentence 4:
Wisma Atria that is in Orchard Road of Singapore.

Did you manage to get the answer?

Sentence 5:
Suzuki-san went to Wisma Atria that is in Orchard Road of Singapore.
鈴木さんはシンガポールのOrchard RoadにあるWisma Atriaへ行きました。

Now, let’s try to describe Suzuki-san. Say, Suzuki-san that has money.

Sentence 6:
Suzuki-san has money.
鈴木さんはお金があります。

Sentence 7 (following what has been mentioned in Sentence 2)
Suzuki-san that has money.
お金がある鈴木さん

Let’s try to combine Sentence 5 and 7 together.

Sentence 8:
Suzuki-san that has money went to Wisma Atria that is in Orchard Road of Singapore.
お金がある鈴木さんはシンガポールのOrchard RoadにあるWisma Atriaへ行きました。
Wow, did you guys manage to follow me through the 8 sentences?

I am going to give a small prize to the one who can translate the below English statement. This is only limited to those who are currently studying at N2 or below and residing in Singapore. When there is more than 1 correct answer, the 1st person who answered correctly will get the prize. The prize is a Kurotoga mechanical pencil, not the ordinary mechanical pencil that you can find in the market. You can read here for more info or watch the Youtube video to see how it works.

Deadline: 16th May 12pm

Answers and explanation will be announced on 17th May. (^_^)

Template for submission

Subject: Do you know me contest?
Name:
Current level of study:
Send the answer to here

Winner will be announced on the 17th May and notified by email (^_^)

Question:
While the poor but handsome Tao-san was eating a $1.50 Tao Sha Pia at Hanis which is beside the white colored National Library which is located at Middle Road of Bugis, Singapore, he met the pretty Licia-san who was eating a $1.50 Tao Sha Pia and currently studying Japanese at Chacha Language School .
Good luck!

Would like to end today’s post with a nice song

君がいるから (Kindaichi Case Files’s theme song)

「は」と「が」の使い方 ・The usage of [wa] and [ga]

皆さん、おはようございます。
昨日は大変でしたので、書けなくてすみませんでした。
今日何か予定がありますか。私は夜までずっと家にいます。ちょっと具合が悪いです。
今日は、「は」と「が」の使い方を紹介したと思います。
_______________________________________________________________
Good morning everyone,
Yesterday was a long day, apologies for not writing.
What do you have on your schedule today? I will be at home all the way. Not feeling well.
Today, i’ll like to introduce how to use 「は」 and 「が」.
============================================================
Rule 1: Use 「が」 in the following sentence patterns.

1. ~は~が structure
2. ~に~があります・います

e.g

姉はかみが長いです
家の近くに郵便局があります
========================================
Rule 2: Replace 「を」 or 「が」 with 「は」 in negative sentences.

朝ごはんは、パンを食べます。ごはんは食べません。
夜は、たいてい音楽をききます。テレビは見ません。
========================================
Rule 3: Use 「が」 in the response to ”question words +が” questions

田中:くだものは、何が好きですか。
木村:りんごが好きです。
========================================
Rule 4: Use 「は」 to compare 2 or more things

私は、ビールは好きですが、ウイスキーはあまり好きではありません。
父は、家ではお酒を飲みますが、外では飲みません
========================================
Exceptional rule(s):

Directing another person’s attention to a fact: ~よ

ナルト:パスが来ましたよ
サクラ:はい、今、行きます。

A:雨が降っていますよ
B:ああ、そうですか。じゃあ、かさを持っていきます 
========================================
Directing another person’s attention to a fact sympathetically: ~ね

A:雨が降っていますね
B:そうですね。いやですね

A:雨がやみましたね
B:そうですね。よかったですね
========================================
Beginning a story by reporting a fact/event/etc

昨夜、家に友達が来ました。そして、いっしょにお酒を飲みました
明日、リーさんが家にきます。いっしょに晩ごはんを食べます。
========================

どう思いますか。役に立ちますか。

あと、今日の歌: 愛なんだ By: V6
楽しんでください!