N4, N5

Mock Test for JLPT N4/N5

Hi all,

We will be administering a mock test for all who are interested.

The test will be administered online on 8th February (Mon). You can do it anytime, but please time yourself. The results will be given on 10th February.

If you are interested, please drop us an email via the Contact Us Form.

/Can

N4, Vocabulary

N4言葉:「結構」と「かなり」の違い

Hi all,

I am back for another post on the differences between 「結構/けっこう」and 「かなり」.

We went through in class today. Let’s take a look at the meanings in Japanese.

結構/けっこう
1) 予想した以上であるさま。極端ではないが、かなりの程度であるさま
State of more than expected. Not extreme, but state of a considerable level (明鏡国語辞典)

2) ある程度予想していたがそれ以上だったこと。 基本的に良い意味で使います
Expected up to a level, but was more than that. Basically used in a good meaning (Meaning-difference.com)

かなり
1) 思いのほか程度が大きいさま。相当 (明鏡国語辞典)
Unexpected state where the extent/degree is big. Considerable.

2) 予想以上に程度が大きいこと。良い意味・悪い意味両方に使います
Matter where extent/degree is more than expected. Can be both used in good and bad meaning. (Meaning-difference.com)

3) Compared to 「結構」, has a strong volition and affirmation (oshiete.ne.jp)


Using 2 sentences, I will try my best to explain the difference.

1) この本は 結構高いです。
(For example, to me, $30 is considered expensive, but actual book price is $50
予想した以上であるさま。極端ではないが、かなりの程度であるさま/State of more than expected. Not extreme, but state of a considerable level)

2) この本は かなり高いです。
(For example, to me, $30 is considered expensive, but actual book price is $200!
思いのほか程度が大きいさま/ Unexpected state where the extent/degree is big)


References:
1) https://oshiete.goo.ne.jp/qa/9446556.html2) https://ameblo.jp/kuroracco/entry-12206516540.html
3) https://japanese.stackexchange.com/questions/64421/difference-between-%E3%81%8B%E3%81%AA%E3%82%8A%EF%BD%9E-and-%E7%B5%90%E6%A7%8B%EF%BD%9E-as-adverbs
4) https://detail.chiebukuro.yahoo.co.jp/qa/question_detail/q1164954986

Grammar, N4

Difference between ように and ために

皆さん、

おはようございます (Good morning). This is a repost. =)

For this article, I did a reference from this book: 初級日本語文法と教え方のポイント by: 石川保子先生. Her books are really very good. Please support her books.

Let’s take a look at 「ために」 first.

A   ために、 B
Chinese translation of 「ために」: 因此,因而,所以
=======================================
原因・理由を表す (Describing Cause/Reason)
For A: Put in a sentence that describes cause or reason. It can also be a sentence that describes a purpose. A sentence that should have with a cause/reason and result.

Let’s take a look at an example.

Sentence 1:
急用ができたために、午後の会議には出られません。
Because of some urgent business, i cannot attend the afternoon meeting.
Let’s take a look at another sentence.

Sentence 2:
急用ができたために、午後の会議は休ませてください
Because of some urgent business, please allow me to rest from the afternoon meeting.

Sentence 2 is not correct. For B, you cannot have sentences that describe volition.
=======================================
目的を表す (Describe Purpose/Aim)

When you are using this grammar for describing purpose and aim, it is ok to have sentences that describe volition for B

Example Sentences:

家族を守るためにがんばりました。
For the sake of protecting my family, i worked hard
家族を守るためにがんばってください。
For the sake of protecting your family, please work hard

家族を守るためにがんばれ!
For the sake of protecting your family, Work hard!
=======================================
Now, for 「ように」

A ように B
Chinese translation for 「ように」: 为了

For A: Put in a sentence that describes a purpose.
=======================================
Example Sentences:
日本語の会話が理解できるように、毎日テープを聞いている。
In order to be able to understand Japanese conversation, every day i listen to the tape.

子供が元気に育つように、親は頑張っている。
In order to raise the children up, the parents are working hard

風邪をひどくならないように、薬を飲んで早めに寝よう。
In order for the cold not to get worse, do take your medicine and go to bed early.
=======================================
There are lots of examples that before 「ように」, verbs that are non volitional or verbs with ない form are used.

You can take it as in order to achieve the result that is describe by B, A is done.

For 「ために」, you already know in your consciousness (意識) that you need to achieve something , so you express the will to want to complete something.

Like in this sentence,
家族を守るためにがんばりました。
For the sake of protecting my family, i worked hard

as compared to 「ように」 whereby you express the aim and what you are doing to achieve the aim.

子供が元気に育つように、親は頑張っている。
In order to raise the children up, the parents are working hard
=======================================
Some other good examples out there:
http://forum.jisho.org/discussion/1208/in-order-to-%E7%82%BA%E3%81%AB%E3%80%80%E3%82%88%E3%81%86%E3%81%AB/p1
http://www.sowto.com/ks/yyxx/ryxx/200510/ks_1582.html

Grammar, N4, N5

Introduction to 未然形 2 (Conjugation of ない-form/受身形/使役形)

みなさん、

おはようございます。

Today i will be talking about conjugation of ない-form/受身形/使役形.

Yesterday we looked at 未然形 (in this post, i will refer it as 未).

Let’s take a look at how to change to the various forms.

Group 1 verbs/五段動詞

ない-form: 未+ない (かいますー>かいー>かわ (未然形)→かわない)

受身形: 未+れます (かいますー>かいー>かわ (未然形)→かわれます)

使役形: 未+せます (かいますー>かいー>かわ (未然形)→かわせます)

使役受身形: 未+されます (かいますー>かいー>かわ (未然形)→かわされます)

Exception: verbs on the さ row

使役受身形: 未+せられます (はなしますー>はなしー>はなさ (未然形)→はなさせられます)

 

Group 2 verbs/ 一段動詞

ない-form: 未+ない (たべますー>たべ (未然形)→たべない)

受身形: 未+られます (たべますー>たべ (未然形)→たべられます)

使役形: 未+させます (たべますー>たべ (未然形)→たべさせます)

使役受身形: 未+させられます (たべますー>たべ (未然形)→たべさせられます)

 

Group 3 verbs/ サ変動詞, カ変動詞

します

します→しない

します→されます (Exception)

します→させます (Exception)

します→させられます (Exception)

Notice all the exceptions uses さ, instead of し? I will explain a bit more in the last article. So hold your doubts for the moment.

きます

ない-form: 未+ない (きますー>きー>こ (未然形)ー>こない)

受身形: 未+られます  (きますー>きー>こ (未然形)ー>こられます)

使役形: 未+させます (きますー>きー>こ (未然形)ー>こさせます)

使役受身形: 未+させられます (きますー>きー>こ (未然形)ー>こさせられます)

Tomorrow, i will discuss on the basic grammar under ない-form.

Thank you.

/Can

Keigo, N4, Others

Introduction to Keigo Part 6: 美化語

みなさん、

こんにちは。

We have come to the last part of the Keigo family member, 美化語 (びかご).

By beautifying nouns, it expresses politeness towards the other party. It is used in a lot of situations, regardless of the other party’s status.

日本語:上品な言葉づかいによって相手への敬意を表す。高める相手の有無を問わず幅広く使う。

By attaching 「お」 or 「ご」to the word, it becomes a 美化語。Take note that not all words can become a 美化語。

お+和語(わご) :native Japanese words

ご+漢語(かんご): Japanese words of Chinese origin

Examples:

さけ → おさけ

りょうり→おりょうり

さかな→おさなか

腹(なか)→お腹

飯(はん)→ご飯

住所(じゅうしょ)→ご住所

I have a good bible to help me some words to 美化語。

Please don’t go yet! We still have 2 sections on this, 上下関係(じょうげかんけい) and the FAQs.

/Can

Keigo, N4, Others

Introduction to Keigo Part 5: 丁重語

みなさん、おはようございます。

Today, we come to the “brother” of 謙譲語(けんじょうご)、the 丁重語(ていちょうご)。

We use this in a situation when there is no other party that we want to praise. By deprecating ourselves, we also express politeness.

日本語: 自分の動作をへりくだることで丁重な表現をする。高める相手がいない場合に使う。

Let’s also revise the difference between 謙譲語 (humble form) and 丁重語 (courteous form).

Some words in 丁重語 (ていちょうご)
いる ⇒ おる
言う ⇒ 申す
する ⇒ いたす
行く、来る ⇒ 参る
思う、知っている ⇒ 存じる
いる ⇒ おる、の例
「今は、雨が降っています
 ⇒「今は、雨が降っております

If you have a difficult time trying to distinguish between 謙譲語 and 丁重語、you just need to remember that 謙譲語 is the one where your action is done on the other party (e.g 申し上げます (to say to the other party). On the other hand, 丁重語 does not require this (e.g 申します) .

It might be difficult at the start to memorize all of this. But, once you apply it into your life, it’s just a matter of time that you get the hang of it.

As a foreigner, if you can use Keigo properly, i think that Japanese will also start to respect you more.

Have a great day ahead!

/Can