Grammar, Keigo, N4

Introduction to Keigo Part 4: 丁寧語

みなさん、

こんばんは。Next up, we have our 丁寧語 (ていねいご), one of the easiest of 敬語。

I guess most of us are familiar with ~です or ~ます. How about ございます or でございます?

manner01

Source: http://www.eurohope.com

This is what we call 丁寧語 (ていねいご) / Polite form. It express the politeness towards the other party through the usage of polite words. It is also used widely regardless whether there is a person of higher status or not. It is one of the most common forms that is used in daily life.

If you are having issues using Level 3 (尊敬語) or Level 0 (謙譲語), you might want to consider using Level 1 (丁寧語) instead. This is something that you will never go wrong. However, from the listener’s point of view, if they are of a higher status, they might get angry why you are not using Keigo.

I remembered i got my 1st job working as a Japanese call centre agent and i did the whole phone interview in Keigo. The IT manager and the director were very impressed with me (at that time, my level was only about N4), so knowing Keigo does help.

日本語: 丁寧な言葉づかいによって相手への敬意を表す。高める相手の有無を問わず幅広く使う。

Example sentences:

こちらは としょかんの じむしつ です。(This is the library’s administration office)

あそこは きのくにや です。 (Over there lies Kinokuniya (a Japanese book store)

There is something else that you guys might not know. That is joining adjectives with ございます。I read that it is not so commonly used. Nonetheless, let’s cover it.

きれいー>きれいでございます

いそがしいー>いそがしゅうございます

たかいー>たこうございます

ありますー>ございます

わたくしですー>わたくしでございます

I was asked some questions by some students on Reddit. I would reserve all the questions until the end of section and end off with the frequently asked questions.

Have a great day ahead.

Cheers,
Can

 

 

 

 

Keigo, N4

Introduction to Keigo Part 3: 謙譲語

更新: 2021年1月21日

みなさん、

こんばんは。 I will be sharing what is 謙譲語 tonight.

What is 謙譲語 (けんじょうご)?
謙譲語(けんじょうご) is also known as humble form. It is used to lift up the other party’s status by deprecating speaker’s own action and to express the respect towards that person.

日本語: 自分の動作をへりくだることで相手を高めて、その人物に対しての敬意を表す。

orimasu
In my table above, Level 1 refers to people who are in the same social status (i.e. friends, acquaintances, etc.). What about Level 0? In the aspect of Keigo, i take it the level which the speaker humbles himself/herself down to a lower social status (e.g an eunuch talking to the emperor).

Let’s take a look at some examples.

わたしは 土曜日(どようび)に 友達(ともだち)の家 (うち) に いきます。
I will go to my friend’s house on Saturday.

わたしは 月曜日(げつようび)に 御社(おんしゃ)に 伺います(うかがいます)。
I will visit your company on Monday.
(Speaker humbles himself/herself down to a lower social status)

How to form verbs in 謙譲語?

There are 3 ways where you can form verbs in 謙譲語.

  1. お+連用形/ます-form+します (For 五段動詞 (Group 1) and 一段動詞 (Group 2) ) 

Example sentences:

  1. わたくし は 本日(ほんじつ)の予定(よてい) を おおくりします。
    (I will send you today’s schedule)
  2. こちらは レポートを おかきします。 (We will write the report)

Note: Not all the words can be used for this form (e.g. お+見+します)
_________________________________________________

2. ご+漢語+します (漢語 means words like 説明(せつめい)します or 案内(あんない) します)

  1. 本日(ほんじつ)のスケジュールをご説明します。 (I will explain today’s schedule)
  2. 本館(ほんかん)の施設(しせつ)をご案内します。 (I will guide you throughout the facility of this institution)

Exception (電話) : お+電話+します

3. Special Words
The last way would be to use the special words. Take note that not all the words are here as I have removed some which are under 丁重語 (ていちょうご).

orimasu2

Example sentences:

  1. せんせいに これを さしあげます。 (I will (humbly) give this to sensei)
  2. 月曜日に A社の社長 に お目にかかります。
    (I will (humbly) meet the CEO for Company A on Monday)
  3. その資料(しりょう)を 拝見 (はいけん) しても よろしいでしょうか。
    (Can i (humbly) take a look at that materials (that you have)?)
  4. 自分(じぶん) の意見 (いけん)  を申し上げます。
    I will (humbly) say my own opinions.

A lot of students have feedback to me that they always have issues with 敬語. I personally feel it is lack of practice. If we can practice 敬語 a bit more in our daily life, then speaking it should not be a problem.  Previously when I was studying 敬語、I remembered that I would speak to myself and change all the verbs to 敬語 every day for about 3 months.

For example:

「わたしは 日本へ行きます。」「わたくしは 御社(おんしゃ)にうかいがいます」, etc., etc.

I hope you have understood the usage of how to use 謙譲語 by reading this article. Please feel free to let me know if you are having issues with 謙譲語。

If you have missed out our Part 1 and Part 2 of the 敬語 series, you can find them below.

Part 1: Types of Keigo
Part 2: 尊敬語 (そんけいご) / Honorific form

Have a great day/night.

Cheers,
Can

Grammar, N4

Giving and Receiving 3 with いただきます

みなさん、

こんにちは。

I have fallen ill (burnout), but nonetheless, i still want to finish writing this set of posts.

Today, i will cover いただきます。Let’s take a look the difference between いただきます and もらいます。

For those who have not read Part 2 of the series, i will repeat myself again.

Level 2 refers to 目上の人(i.e superiors, seniors, teachers, etc).
Level 1 refers to people who are in the same social status (i.e friends, acquaintances, etc).

Let’s take a look at the following example from the post 2 days ago.

わたしは ともだちに 花(はな)を もらいました。 (I received flowers from my friend)

In the event, if you are receiving something from someone who is in a higher status than you, e.g seniors, superiors, teachers, etc, it may be better to use 「いただきます」instead of 「もらいます」。

Some examples would be:

わたしは せんせいに 花(はな)を いただきました。 (I received flowers from my sensei)

わたしは しゃちょうに おみやげを いただきました。 (I received souvenirs from my company director)

Legend:
Red: Giver of action
Blue: Receiver of action
Green: Object

Take note that if you were to use 「もらいます」or 「いただきます」, the person receiving has to be you or someone who is emotionally close to you (e.g your family members, your colleagues at your company).

 

I hope you understand today’s article. Part 4 would be one of the hardest to understand, i would try to break it down so that it is easier for you.

 

Cheers,
Can

 

Grammar, N4

Giving and Receiving 2 (くださいます/さしあげます)N4

みなさん、

こんにちは。

To continue from i stopped yesterday.

Today we will go 1 step further to explain くださいます and さしあげます。

Let’s take a look at the following table.

In my table above, Level 2 refers to 目上の人(i.e superiors, seniors, teachers, etc).
Level 1 refers to people who are in the same social status (i.e friends, acquaintances, etc).

Let’s take a look at the following example from yesterday’s post.
わたしは ともだちに 花(はな)を あげました。(I gave flowers to my friend).

 

In the event if you wish to say “I gave flowers to your teacher”, it would be better to say
わたしは   せんせいに 花(はな)を さしあげました。

This would be in Level 2 politeness. Basically, you change 「あげます」 to 「さしあげます」to indicate the status of the receiver.

 

Similarly, let’s recap on くれます。

ともだちわたし本(ほん)をくれました。

(My friend gave me a book)

If you wish to say your sensei or someone of a higher status gave you or your family member something,
it would be better to use くださいます。

An example would be below:

先生 わたし本(ほん)を くださいました。(My teacher gave me a book)

Some other example sentences:

 

さしあげます

わたしは 課長(かちょう)に りんごを さしあげました。(I gave apples to my section chief)

わたしは 社長(しゃちょう)に おみやげを さしあげました。 (I gave souvenirs to my company director)

 

くださいます

せんせいは いもうとに 着物(きもの)を くださいました。 (Sensei gave my younger sister a set of kimono)

かちょうは わたしに おみやげを くださいました。 (My section chief gave me some souvenirs)

 

Legend:
Red: Giver of action
Blue: Receiver of action
Green: Object

Tomorrow/this weekend i will work on Giving and Receiving Part 3 (いただきます) and
Giving and Receiving Part 4 (て+くれます・くださいます/ て+もらいます・いただきます/て+あげます・さしあげます)

 

Hope you all understand a little better about くださいます and さしあげます。

Have a great Friday ahead.

 

Cheers,

Can

 

N4

New Intermediate Class Starting

Hi all,

We will be starting our Intermediate class someone around Jul.

Students will be able to attend prep lessons for Intermediate from May onwards at $5/lesson.

Below are the details for the lesson

Date: end Jul/start Aug
Time: 10-12pm
Slots: 8 (2 slots left)
Location: Waterloo Centre
Fees: $330 for 10 lessons (total of 5-6 terms), depending on students` progress.

After Intermediate, students will be able to attempt N4 or N3 (for the better students)

Students must have passed N5 and sit for a placement test to do this level.

/Can

Grammar, N4, N5

Identifying Verb Group

Hi all,

One of the things about learning 国語 (Kokugo, the Japanese language which is learned by native Japanese) is that they have different ways of identifying their group 1, 2 and 3 verbs.

If you are unsure if a verb is group 1 or 2, remove the る、ない、た、etc from the verb and add a ない、if it ends with a [あ]-sound, then its a group 1, else its a group 2.

e.g はなさない (hana-SA-nai) : group 1
たべない (ta-BE-nai): group 2
みない (MI-nai): group 2…

Have a good weekend ahead.

/Can

N4, N5

New classes

Hi all,

There are some new classes which i have just added.

  1. Intermediate 2 class (starting 8th July Tues)
  2. Beginner class: Foundation Studies (starting 11th Aug Fri)

Feel free to contact me via telephone number (listed in contact us page) or email for future details.

Cheers,
Can

N2, N4, N5

N2/N4/N5 prep class (Last min discount)

Hi all,

I am closing the registration for N2/N4 and N5 prep class.

As such, i am giving a last min discount for those who wish to pass the exam, especially for N2.

If you fail, the 2nd attempt would be paid by me. (Terms and conditions apply)

Kindly call me the number listed in Contact Me to discuss on the discount.

N2 prep class starts tomorrow.
N4/N5 prep class starts the following week (26th June)

Cheers,
Can

 

N4, N5

Do not skip your N4 and N5

更新: 2021年4月16日
———–
みなさん、

おはようございます。

Today`s post is on not skipping your N4 and N5.

I saw this post by a guy on the forum:

I went for XXX’s prep course for both N2 and N1. For the other grades, I think it’s possible to self study them, but I never took those exams because I felt it was a waste of money.

Please allow me to add something that a number of Japanese learners may know, not even the teachers in the schools. I got to know this as I have been doing research on JLPT since 2010, taking exams with my students and have been attending teacher conferences with teachers from other countries.

Every level of JLPT will test you on different areas of the language.

N5: Ability to use correct particles in sentences, basic vocabulary, basic usage of forms, usage of time, date, usage of adverbs, Japanese greetings

N4: Ability to identify usage of transitive/intransitive verbs, potential/passive/volitional forms sentence structures, usage of similar vocabulary (e.g ごはんをたべる vs 食事), basic usage of Keigo (not in recent years), usage of time, date, usage of adverbs

N3: Intermediate level vocabulary, Ability to read composition on people, simple official notices, Keigo, causative passive form, ~そうです, conversational sentences

N2: Understanding of N3, N4 and N5 grammar, Ability to read newspaper articles, official notices, understand simple business conversations, usage of Keigo, causative passive form
usage of particles in sentences.

N1: Understanding of N1-N5 grammar. Ability to read abstract articles, newspaper articles, understand complex business conversations, advanced Keigo, usage of particles in difficult sentences. Depending which year you took JLPT, you might have missed out the important stuff that you need to know.

We also saw a trend that N1 vocabulary is tested in N3 (Dec 2016), N4, N5 grammar and vocabulary tested in N1 (Dec 2016)

For students who are taking N1 or N2, I strongly advise you to revise your foundation grammar before attempting the exam. Good luck!

/Can