Grammar

Different between 「が」、「でも」,「しかし」、「ただし」

更新: 2020年1月15日

皆さん、

おはようございます!

明日祝日ですから、やっと休めます。

今日、「でも」、「しかし」、「ただし」、「が」について説明しようと思います。

「が」は対比的:私はそうしようと思うが、彼はそうではない。
私と彼の状況の対比

-が
1 〔しかし〕 but; however; (and) yet; still; 〔…だけれども〕 though; although; while.

▲見かけはごついが, 根は優しい男だ. He looks rough [He has a tough look], but he’s kind at heart. | He has a kind heart in spite of his rough exterior.

・行きたいが暇がない. I’d like to go, but I don’t have time.

・もう全快したが, 油断は禁物だ. I’m completely better [recovered], but I can’t afford to take any risks. | Although I’m completely cured, I still have to be careful.

・兄は豪胆だが, 弟は少し臆病だ. The elder brother is daring, but the younger one is a little timid.

・二度と彼に会うことはなかったが, それを残念だとも思わなかった. I never saw him again, but I wasn’t sorry. | Although that was the last I saw of him, I didn’t regret it.

・行ければ行くのですが. I’d go if I could.

・ご厚意はありがたいのですが, この話はお受けしかねます. Thank you very much for thinking of me [I am most grateful for your kindness], but I’m afraid I cannot accept your proposal. | Grateful though I am for your proposal, I’m afraid I must decline.

2 〔前置き〕/preface, introduction

▲すでにお聞き及びかと思いますが, このたび結婚することになりました. As I think you may already have heard, we are going to get married. | You may already have heard that I am going to get married.

・さっきも言ったが, 集合時刻には絶対に遅れないように. To repeat: be absolutely sure to come [assemble] on time. | As I just said, it is essential that nobody arrives late.

・例の契約の件ですが, その後どうなってますか? About that contract. How is it going? | How is that contract coming along?

・郵便局に行きますが, 何か用はないですか? I’m going to the post office. Is there anything I can do for you (there)? | Is there anything I can do for you at the post office?

・雑誌で読んだんだが, 酒を飲んだほうが長生きするんだってね. I read in a magazine that [According to a magazine I read,] drinking (alcohol) makes you live longer. | A magazine I read says that drinking increases life expectancy.

・昨日宝塚歌劇へ行ったが, 実におもしろかった. Yesterday I went to the Takarazuka Review and had a really great time.

3 〔文末に用いて断言を避ける〕

「悪いのはあなたでしょ?」「それはそうなんだ」 ”It’s your fault, isn’t it?”―”I admit that. Still [But even so]….”

・「払い戻しはできないんですか?」「はい, 申し訳ございません」 ”Can’t I get a refund?”―”I’m afraid not. I’m sorry. | I’m very sorry, but I’m afraid that it is not possible.”

・あのう, その傘, 私のじゃないかと思うんです. Excuse me, but I think that’s [that may be] my umbrella.

・今日はちょっと早く帰りたいんです. May I [Do you mind if I] leave a little early today?

4 〔「…ばいい」の形で危惧・願望を表す〕

無事帰ってくればよい. I (do) hope they get [they’ll get] back safely. | If they only come back safe (and sound)!

・今夜中に熱引いてくれればいい. I hope the temperature will come down [return to normal] tonight.

・何か悪いこと起こらねばいい. I (do) hope nothing goes wrong [nothing bad happens]. | God forbid anything nasty happens!

5 〔「…う」, 「…まい」の形で無関係であることを表す〕

結婚しようしまい私の勝手でしょ. It’s nothing to do with you whether I get married or not. | Whether I get married (or not) is my own business.

・口紅を塗ろう白粉(しろ)をはたこう土台は変わらない. Whether you put lipstick on or powder your face, your face stays basically the same. | Putting on lipstick or powder doesn’t [won’t] change the way your face is made.

・だれだろう, 邪魔する奴は許さん. I won’t let anyone interfere; I don’t care [give a damn] who it is.

・どうなろう知ったことか. I don’t care [give a damn] what happens. | It’s nothing to me what happens.
______________________
「ただし」は補完的で言外のことを指す:全て良い。ただしこの作品を除いての話だが。
少し強調されます

Used when you wanna add on something to the existing information. Used when you want to emphasize something.

これだけは聞いて知っている. ただし真偽のほどは保証できない. This is what I have heard, but I cannot vouch for the truth of it.

・自由に外出してよい. ただし門限は厳守すること. You may go out whenever you wish, but you have to be back before the curfew [front gate is locked].

・会長の任期は 3 年とする. ただし再任は妨げない. The president’s term of appointment shall be three years. There is no impediment, however, to reappointment.
______________________

「しかし」は前文を撤回する感じ:作戦は幾通りもある。しかし遂行するには無理だ。

彼は勉強ができる。しかし、スポーツは全然駄目だ。

しかし
1 〔逆接; だが〕 but; however; still; (and) yet; nevertheless; notwithstanding. [⇒しかしながら]

▲雨だ. しかし, 行かねばならない. It’s raining. And yet [Still,] I have to go.

2 〔話題転換; それはそれとして〕
▲冬になった. しかしキリギリスには蓄えがなかった. Winter came. Now, the grasshopper had not stored up any food.

・「給料上げてくれるって言ったじゃないですか」「しかしねえ, うちも不景気でねえ」 “Didn’t you say you’d give us a wage hike?”―”Yes [I know], but listen, this company’s business is suffering, you know.”

3 〔感動; それにしても〕
▲しかしきれいな夕焼けだ. Gee, it’s a pretty red sunset!

・しかしだね, この原稿は君, あまりにひどいよ. Gee whiz, man, this manuscript is in just too horrible a state!

・しかし, おかしいね. It’s strange, though.
______________________

「でも」は言い足りないことを言う感じ:皆私を怒った。でもあなたは違った。
何か一つ言いたいことがあるニュアンス

和食は好きです。でも、納豆はまだ食べられません。

でも
1 〔だが〕 but; yet; still; though; however; and (then).

▲私は何の力もない, でも, 私に話してほしかった. There may not be anything I could have done, but still, I wish you had talked to me about it.

・管理職はつらい, でも, 昇進は悪くない. It’s hard being a manager but, for all that, being promoted is not such a bad thing.

・戦争ですべてを失った. でも, 君がいるから生きてゆける. I lost everything in the war, but I can still go on living because ┌I’ve got you [you are here].

2 〔弁解の前置き〕 well…; but….
▲「なぜもっと早く起きなかったの」「でも, 眠かったんだもの」 “Why didn’t you get up
earlier?”―”Well, I was feeling sleepy.”

Does not fully negate what you want to say.

源: Yahoo! 知恵袋 / 新和英大辞典

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