N5文法:「に」と「で」の違い (N5 Grammar: Difference between に and で)

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皆さん、

おはようございます。 (Good morning everyone.)
今日、日本語教師養成コースのコーチからアサインメントの添削をもらいました。そのアサインメントにある質問、「に」と「で」の違いについて話しましょう。
(Today, i received my correction for my teaching course assignment. There’s a question in the assignment regarding 「に」 and 「で」 which i like to talk about. )

「に」:
① 移動行為の方向を示します. 英語の「to」に大体対応します。 (Indicate a direction of a movement act. It’s similar to 「to」 in English. )
② また、間接目的語の後ろにも置かれます。 (Also, it is also put after an indirect object.)
例:
私はAKB48コンサートへ行きます。 (I went to AKB48 concert. (point 1) )
姉は私に辞書をかってくれました。 (My sister bought a dictionary for me)

「で」:
① 活動場所を示し、場所の後に置かれます。 (It indicates the place of the activity and is put after the place)

例:
AKB48会場で歌を聞きます。 (I listen to songs at AKB48 concert hall)
秋葉原駅で待っています。 (I am waiting at Akihabara)

In contrast to the above example on 「で」, 「に」 is a particle that describes existence, let’s take a look at the below examples.

①「名前はそこ書きました」

② 「名前はそこ書きました。」

What are the differences between and ?

For ①、 you are describing that the location of where your name is being written to (to a piece of paper) . 「i wrote my name over there (maybe somewhere on a piece of paper)」

For ②, you are describing that the location of where the action of “your name is written (e.g on a table/in a room) ” 「i wrote my name over there (on a table/room/etc) 」

③ 「庭物置を建てた」 (In the garden, a store room is built)

④ 「庭物置を建てた」 (In the garden, a store room was built)

For ③、 the place where the store room exists is in the garden. There’s a possibility where the garden can also be somewhere else in the garden.

For ④、the building of the store room is done at the garden, where the store room is, it is probably somewhere else in the garden.

⑤ 「あそこボールを投げる」 (I am throwing the ball to over there)

⑥「あそこボールを投げる」 (I am throwing the ball over there)

For ⑤、You are describing the location of where the ball will end up (あそこ)

For ⑥、You are describing the location of which the action of throwing the ball is being done.

⑦ 「そこステレオがあります」 (There’s a stereo over there)

⑧ 「そこパーティがあります」 (There’s a party of there)

Also, if you are describing location of nouns that has no movement (e.g ステレオ), use 「に」。

For unnatural/dynamic nouns (e.g パーティ,結婚式 ), use 「で」.

⑨ 「仕事に疲れる」(精神的にまいっている) 

⑩ 「仕事で疲れる」(肉体疲労)

In sentence 9 and 10, 「に」 is used for mental fatigue, 「で」 is used for physical fatigue.

 

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